Sodium removal in peritoneal dialysis: is there room for a new parameter in dialysis adequacy?


  • Anna Lima Nephrology Department, Hospital Prof Fernando Fonseca
  • Joana Tavares
  • Nicole Pestana
  • Maria João Carvalho
  • António Cabrita
  • Anabela Rodrigues



peritoneal dialysis, sodium removal, dialysis adequacy


In peritoneal dialysis (PD) (as well as in hemodialysis) small solute clearance measured as Kt/v urea has long been used as a surrogate of dialysis adequacy. A better urea clearance was initially thought to increase survival in dialysis patients (as shown in the CANUSA trial)(1), but  reanalysis of the data showed a superior contribution of residual renal function as a predictor of patient survival. Two randomized controlled trials (RCT)(2, 3)  supported this observation, demonstrating no survival benefit in patients with higher achieved Kt/v. Then guidelines were revised and a minimum Kt/v of 1,7/week was recommended but little emphasis was given to additional parameters of dialysis adequacy. As such, volume overload and sodium removal have gained major attention, since their optimization has been associated with decreased mortality in PD patients(4, 5). Inadequate sodium removal is associated with fluid overload which leads to ventricular hypertrophy and increased cardiovascular mortality(6). Individualized prescription is key for optimal sodium removal as there are differences between PD techniques (CAPD versus APD) and new strategies for sodium removal have emerged (low sodium solutions and adapted PD). In conclusion, future guidelines should address parameters associated with increased survival outcomes (sodium removal playing an important role) and abandon the current one fit all prescription model.


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How to Cite

Lima A, Tavares J, Pestana N, Carvalho MJ, Cabrita A, Rodrigues A. Sodium removal in peritoneal dialysis: is there room for a new parameter in dialysis adequacy?. Bull Dial Domic [Internet]. 2019 Sep. 18 [cited 2023 Mar. 30];2(3):151-7. Available from: